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Instructions for Authors

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Ethical Guidelines
Manuscript Format and Style
Manuscript Structure
Review Process


The Journal of Problem-Based Learning is an interdisciplinary/ multidisciplinary professional journal showcasing the scholarship and best practice in Problem-Based Learning . This peer-reviewed journal offers information for evidence-based practice and innovative strategies for Problem-Based Learning. It is published twice per year. Please read the instructions carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards.

Ethical Guidelines

  • • Authors must strive to protect participants from harm arising as a consequence of their participation in research. This requires that participation should be voluntary and as fully informed as possible and no group should be disadvantaged by routinely being excluded from consideration. All studies using human or animal subjects should include an explicit statement in the Material and Methods section identifying the review and ethics committee approval for each study.
  • • Editors reserve the right to reject papers if there is misconduct of the research involved in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
    • - Fabrication: Making up data or results and recording or reporting them as factual results.
    • - Falsification: Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
    • - Plagiarism: The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confidential review of others' research proposals and manuscripts.
  • • Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.
  • • The submission of the manuscript by the authors means that the authors automatically agree to assign copyright to International Society for Problem-Based Learning if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes, in electronic databases and the like, or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher.


  • • Type of Article
    • - Review articles
    • - Research articles
    • - Others: Discussion paper, Professional opinion, Concept analysis, Q-methodology, Meta-analysis and etc.
  • • Authors will need to check Research and Publication Ethics before submission. If the manuscript does not meet these requirements, it will not be accepted for consideration.
  • • Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission system at http://ejpbl.org
  • • Authors will set up an account through the web-site which will be used to upload files as new submissions. Authors will also be able to log on to the web-site and check on the status of submissions. When setting up the account, the corresponding author will answer a series of questions which were previously addressed with the certification pages. These questions must be answered in order for the submission to be considered.
  • • Authors will receive notification of the receipt of the manuscript within a few weeks of submission. Further assistance can be obtained from emailing: jpbleditor@gmail.com
  • • Journal of Problem-Based Learning reserves the right to edit all manuscripts to its style and space requirements and to clarify the presentation.
  • • When the manuscripts are accepted for publication, Copyright Transfer Agreement must be signed by all authors and returned to International Society for Problem-Based Learning via Fax (+82-64-741-7431) or email to jpbleditor@gmail.com.

Manuscript Format and Style

  • • The manuscript must be written in English.
  • • Manuscripts must not exceed 20 pages, including abstract, text, references, tables, and figures.
  • • Manuscripts should be in Hancomsoft or MS Word, on A4 size paper, 12point Times New Roman font or equivalent, double-spaced, with standard margins (about 1 inch) on all sides. Fancy typefaces, italics, underlining, and bolding should not be used except as prescribed in the APA guidelines.
  • • Manuscripts must adhere to the format and style described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2017), unless otherwise indicated in organization of the manuscript below.
  • • If any material in the manuscript is from a previously copyrighted publication, include a letter of permission to reproduce the material from both the author and the copyright holder.
  • • Authors should be sure to obtain permission for the use of study instruments from each individual or publisher identified as a source of the instruments.

Manuscript Structure

  • • All manuscripts submitted to Journal of Problem-Based Learning should be organized in the following order: title page, acknowledgement, abstract, text, references, tables, and figures. Do not use appendices.
  • • Title Page
    • - Title Page must contain a descriptive and concise title of the paper (no more than 30 words), names and qualifications of all authors, their affiliations.
    • - On the title page, a corresponding author must be designated and a complete postal/mail address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of corresponding author must be provided.
    • - The title page must also contain details of the source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs of all of these.
    • - The keywords need to be entered in title page up to six: Use MESH key words (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html) when possible.
  • • Abstract should not exceed 200 words and should accurately reflect the content of the paper. The abstract should not include references or abbreviations and should be provided under the headings: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion, and Keywords.
  • • Text should be structured as follows: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content.
    • - Introduction: Clearly state the need of this study and main question or hypothesis of this study. Summarize the literature review or background in the area of the study.
    • - Methods: Describe the study design, setting and samples, and measurements, procedure, analysis used.
    • - Results: Describe the main results in a concise paragraph. This section should be the most descriptive. Note levels of statistical significance and confidence intervals where appropriate.
    • - Discussion: Make discussions based only on the reported results.
    • - Conclusion: Describe recommendations for further study needed. Do not summarize the study results.
    • - Acknowledgments: Limit acknowledgements to key contributors if needed.
  • • References verify all information included in references carefully; it is essential that readers be able to look up the cited material. References should be styled according to the guidelines in the Publication Manual of The American Psychological Association (APA 6th edition 2017), and the specific guidelines of International Journal of Problem-Based Learning.
  • • Each table should be placed on a separate sheet.
  • • Each table must be numbered (consecutively in the order mentioned in the text) and titled. Each column within a table should have a heading.
  • • Abbreviations must be explained in a footnote. Footnotes to a table are typed immediately below the table. The reference marks are superscript small letters with the footnotes. They should be provided in the left lower corner of the table and arranged in the following order: ‡, , , §, , , #, **, , Asterisk (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Do not indicate placement of tables and figures in the text-the editor will automatically place your tables and figures.
  • • All graphs, drawings and photographs are considered figures and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals.
  • • Each figure should have a legend and all legends should be typed together on a separate sheet and numbered correspondingly.
  • • If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publisher.
Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication
  • • Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (ling art) or TIFF(halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi(halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size.
  • • Please submit the data for figures in black and white. EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art:>600 dpi; halftones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images:>600 dpi. Use the symbols of ●, ■, ▲ ,◆, ○, □, △, ◊ respectively in a figure.
In-Text Citation
  • • References in the text are shown by citing in parentheses the author's surname and the year of publication. Example: "… a recent study (Park, 2006) has shown…" If a reference has two authors the citation appears in the text. Example: "…. a recent study (Maas & Specht, 2001) has shown…"
  • • When a reference has more than two authors and fewer than six authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, and for all citations having six or more authors, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." If more than one publication in the same year by a given author or multiple authors is cited, distinguish citations by adding, a, b, etc. to the year of publication. Example: "… a recent study (MAAS, 200a) has shown…."
  • • Multiple references cited at the same point in the text are separated by semicolons and enclosed in one pair of parentheses. The order within one pair of parentheses is alphabetical by first author's surname or if all by the same author, in sequence by year of publication. Example: "Recent studies (Jones, 1996; Reed, 1992) have shown…" "Recent studies (Reed, 1992a, 1997b)…"
  • • Avoid citation of personal communications of unpublished material.

These should start on a separate page following the text. Total numbers of references must not exceed 30. Check all references for accuracy and completeness. List all authors, but if the number exceeds 6, list only the first 6 authors followed by et al. Please follow the format and punctuation shown in the following examples:

  • • Journal article: Last name and initials of authors; year of publication; title of article (capitalize only the first word, proper names, and abbreviations normally capitalized; no quotation marks); journal title (italicize) year of publication; volume (italicize); inclusive page numbers.
    Cosgrove, L., & Riddle, B. (2003). Constructions of femininity and experiences of menstrual distress. Women's Health, 38(3), 37-38, Kim, H. W. (2006). The effects of a PMS nutritional education program for college students. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 36, 1164-1174.
  • • Books: Last name and initials of authors; year of publication; title of book (italicize); edition number (if after first edition); city and state of publication; publisher.
    Maag, J. W. (2004). Behavior management: From theoretical implications to practical applications (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth-Thomson.
  • • Online References: Author(s); year of publication; title of the specific item cited (italicize); date the Web site was accessed; full URL
    National wage data. (2004). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved January 19, 2005, from http://www.bls.gov/bls/blswage.htm#National
  • • Thesis
    Kilgore, L. (2004). Beyond the merit of test scores: Gatekeeping in elite college admissions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brown University, Providence, USA, Hamilton, J. A. (1998). University women's experience with and perceptions of premenstrual syndrome. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Winsor, Ontario, Canada. Other than as specified above, manuscripts should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Review Process

  • • All manuscripts submitted to Journal of Problem-Based Learning will be reviewed by at least two or three experts in the subject of the manuscript. All submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review on the basis of clarity, scientific accuracy, breadth of appeal, and timeliness. After the process of peer review, the manuscripts will be reviewed by editorial board members and then final decision for publication will be made by Editor-in-Chief of Editorial Committee.
  • • Journal of Problem-Based Learning uses double-blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper and the name(s) of the author(s) will not be disclosed to the reviewers. The average time from manuscript submission to the author's receipt of the editor's decision about publication is approximately 3 months. Authors who are responsive to the suggestions of the reviewers are well placed to have their manuscripts accepted for publication.

An “author” is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contribution to a published study or scholarly work. Many journals now request and publish information about the contributions of each named author. Consequently, each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authorship credit should be based on:

  • • Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  • • Substantial involvement in drafting the manuscript or critically revising for important intellectual content;
  • • Final approval of the version to be published.

Note: Authors must meet at least two of the above conditions.

• When a group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should meet the criteria for authorship defined above.

  • • All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship will normally be listed in an acknowledgments section of the paper. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided advice, technical help, writing assistance, statistical support or who meet with the group but did not contribute substantially.
  • • Corresponding authors should declare whether they had assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. If such assistance was available, the authors should disclose the acknowledge individuals who provided this assistance. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.
  • • See more at International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (2008). Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication, accessed at http://www.icmje.org on March 9, 2009


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